Where,since when and how have the Ainu People existed?
Ainu Historical Events(Outline)
Whats is the Ainu Association of hokkaido?
Organisation Chart
The Living Conditions of Hokkaido Ainu
INAGURATION SPEECH
STRACTURE OF THE U.N, WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
U.N. Human Rights Monitoring System and Other Activities
Submissions on and Consideration of Ainu Issues under International Humman Rights Covenants.
Submissions on and Consideration of Ainu Issues under International Humman Rights Covenants.
Information on the Hokkaido Ainu Center
Submissions on and Consideration of Ainu Issues under International Humman Rights Covenants. 
Submissions on and Consideration of Ainu Issues under International Humman Rights Covenants.
TEL:+81-11-221-0462
FAX:+81-11-221-0672
 

Actual Living Conditions of the Hokkaido Ainu


According to the Survey on the Hokkaido Ainu Living Conditions conducted in 2006 by the Hokkaido Government, the Ainu population in HokkaidoNote 1 is 23,782 in 72 municipalities. About 59.5% of these live in the subprefectures of Hidaka and Iburi (as shown on the map to the below). It is estimated that the Ainu population is far larger than the results indicate due to the constraints of the survey. In addition, as the survey was limited to the Ainu living in HokkaidoNote 2 and its questions were limited, the results cannot be said to fully reflect the reality of Ainu living conditions.
However, even with these limitations, the severity of Ainu life and educational circumstances is clear.
Note 1: The Hokkaido Government defined the Ainu in Hokkaido as those of Ainu descent as well as those living with descendants of the Ainu through marriage, adoption and so forth in local communities, and counted only those who identify themselves as Ainu.
Note 2: A nationwide actual condition survey was requested by the U.N. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, but has not been conducted. The latest figures on the Ainu population outside Hokkaido are from an actual condition survey conducted in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in 1988, in which the Ainu population was estimated at 2,700.



Ratio of the Ainu in employment by industry (%)
Of those who are employed, 28.6% are engaged in primary industry such as agriculture and fisheries. Even when those in secondary industry (such as manufacturing and construction) and those who run small- and medium-sized businesses in tertiary industry are included, the numbers in management positions are trifling.




Over the 34 years,those engaged primary indusry decreased by more than half. On the other hand, those in tertiary industry increased by more than 2.5 times.
(%)
 
1972
1999
2006
  Primary industry
63.2
29.5
28.6
  Secondary industry
20.0
27.8
27.7
  Tertiary industry
15.4
35.4
41.1

Ratio of those receiving welfare assistance (‰)
The number of people per 1,000 receiving livelihood protection. (Note that the ratio is higher in Hokkaido than the national average.)

Approximately 81.1% of respondents said that life was very difficult or somewhat difficult, showing a significant improvement from the last survey (80.6%). The number of Ainu receiving livelihood protection increased by approximately 1.6 times, indicating a slight deterioration in terms of the ratio. (The figures in "All" indicate average numbers in the municipalities where the Amu live.)

(‰)
1972
1979
1986
1993
1999
2006
  Ainu
115.7
68.6
60.9
38.8
37.2
38.3
  All
17.5
19.5
21.9
16.4
18.4
24.6
Numbers for the overall or general population are the average for the municipalities in which Ainu live.

Ratio of those going on to high school and university (%)
93.5% of the Ainu go on to high school compared with the general average of 98.3%, while the ratio of those progressing to university is a low 17.4% compared with the general average of 38.5%. As education plays an important role in the improvement of the Ainu's social standing, the alleviation of this disparity is an urgent priority.

(%)
 
1972
1979
1986
1993
1999
2006
 High schools            
 Ainu
41.6
69.3
78.4
87.4
95.2
93.5
 All
78.2
90.6
94.0
96.3
97.0
98.3
 Universities            
 Ainu
-
8.8
8.1
11.8
16.1
17.4
 All
-
31.1
27.4
27.5
34.5
38.5

Remaining discrimination
16.8% of respondents indicated they had experienced discrimination that they could remember, while 13.8% indicated that they had not experienced discrimination themselves but knew someone who had.

Have you ever suffered discrimination?


Situation of discrimination
(Total of respondents and others; recent 6 to 7 years)